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Handshake being made over a construction contract  with a general contractor
Time and Material Contracts: A Comprehensive Guide
7 minute read
Kevin Forestell headshot
Kevin Forestell
October 9, 2023

Time and Material Contracts: A Comprehensive Guide

Construction contracts can be incredibly complicated. However, when working for clients or hiring a contractor, especially on projects that require large sums of money, contracts are necessary. Not only to protect yourself as a business owner but also to protect the homeowner. That's why using the right contract for your project is crucial.

There is debate over which type of construction contract is the best between time and material contracts, fixed-price contracts, cost-plus contracts, and guaranteed maximum price contracts. However, which is best often comes down to experience, preference, industry trends, and your relationship with the customer.

In this blog, we will comprehensively discuss time and material (T&M) contracts including what they are, their key components, and their advantages, challenges, and efficiency.

What Exactly is a Time and Material Contract?

Time and material contracts are a type of agreement where the client pays the contractor based on the time spent on the project and the materials used. In this contract setup, rates for labor costs are fixed and the materials are determined ahead of time but the labor time and cost for materials are not fixed. This allows T&M contracts to be flexible in handling projects with evolving scopes and uncertain timelines.

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To illustrate, imagine a scenario where a construction project encounters unforeseen challenges that demand extra time and materials. A T&M contract allows for adjustments in real time, ensuring a fair compensation mechanism for both parties involved.

Key Components of a Time and Material Contract

Here are a few key components that should be included in any T&M contract for increased assurance between the contractor and client.

Important factors to consider when using t&m contracts include not-to-execed clauses, material markups, and payment milestons

Not-to-Exceed Contract

One crucial aspect of T&M contracts is the "not-to-exceed" clause, also called a T&M NTE contract. This provision sets a cap on the total compensation the contractor can receive, providing a level of cost control for the client. This clause is beneficial in balancing flexibility with financial predictability, ensuring that the project stays within a predefined budget.

Material Markups

While the type of materials should be determined in the contracts, markups should be included. Typically, markups range from 15% to 35% and should be based on the original cost plus freight and shipping costs of the materials.

Payment Milestones

To protect the financial overhead of each project, some contracts will include payment milestones. These milestones are agreed upon at the beginning of the project to ensure the contractor gets paid for their completed work.

Examples of a T&M Contract

To further grasp the concept, let's delve into a couple of examples. Consider a renovation project where the scope is uncertain, and changes are likely to occur as the work progresses. In such cases, a T&M contract allows for adjustments in labor and material costs without the need for constant renegotiation.

T&M contracts were popular during the COVID-19 pandemic because the cost of materials like lumber was unstable. This put much of the financial risk on the contractors who were unable to meet the original prices laid out in fixed-price contracts.

Unfortunately, these rising costs ended with many buyers and contractors having to cancel projects. That's why adding addendums and clauses that arrow for renegotiation is vital for many contractors.

When is a Time and Material Contract Most Suitable?

Time and materials contracts are most useful on projects with fluid scopes, where predicting the exact amount of work or materials required is challenging. Maintenance and repair projects, emergency work, or those with evolving specifications often benefit from the flexibility inherent in T&M contracts. However, for projects with well-defined scopes and clear deliverables, fixed-price contracts might be a more suitable choice.

Time and Material Contracts vs. Other Types

Many types of contracts can be used for client and project management in construction. Below is a comparison between those other contracts and T&M contracts.

Fixed Price Contract vs. Time and Material Contract

Fixed-price contracts offer cost certainty for both the purchaser and contractor, making them suitable for projects with well-defined scopes. However, they lack the flexibility to accommodate changes effectively. T&M contracts, on the other hand, provide adaptability but may introduce uncertainties in costs.

Cost-Reimbursable Contract vs. Time and Material Contract

While both allow for flexibility, cost-reimbursable contracts, also known as cost-plus contracts, typically cover a broader range of costs, including overhead and profit. The issue with this type of contract is that there is little incentive to save the client money as higher costs mean higher revenue. T&M contracts are more focused on direct labor and material costs, providing a middle ground between fixed-price and cost-reimbursable contracts.

T&M Contract vs. Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP) Contract

A GMP contract sets a maximum price that the client will pay, incorporating a degree of flexibility. This ensures that the client is not alarmed or thrown off by final costs if there are lots of changes to the project. However, T&M contracts may offer more transparency in cost breakdowns, allowing clients to scrutinize expenses more closely.

Advantages and Challenges of T&M Contracts

With all of this background about T&M contracts, they also have their pros and cons.

The Many Benefits of T&M Contracts

T&M contracts offer a range of advantages, including flexibility, transparency, and adaptability to changing project scopes. The ability to make real-time adjustments and avoid the need for constant renegotiation is a significant benefit. They also benefit the contractor by allowing them to adjust their plan when needed without eating into their profit margins too much.

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Another benefit for contractors is that if you successfully deliver the project below the initial time, it builds trust with the customer. This leads to increased trust and better word-of-mouth. While you end up billing fewer hours and decreasing revenue on one project, you have free up time to bid on other projects.

Potential Pitfalls and Disadvantages

However, because T&M contracts have benefits for the contractor, they come with challenges for the homeowners and the client as they are now the ones that take on the financial risk. The lack of cost certainty, the potential for scope creep, and concerns about project control are among the disadvantages that need careful consideration for the customer.

This lack of scope and clarity can make your homeowner customers and clients weary of signing them as they're unsure how to budget for the project. An unfortunate truth is that many contractors can abuse T&M contracts by changing material types to create bigger profit margins. There is also less incentive for the laborers to be efficient.

cons of t&m contracts include the lack of cost certainty, the need for very accurate financial reporting, and a high level of trust with the customer

A way to avoid the labor issue is to implement a maximum labor hour limit where the cost of any hours over the set limit is absorbed by the contractor. This encourages the laborers to be more efficient and get the job done.

That's why there needs to be mutual trust between the contractor and the homeowner. A great way to build trust as a homeowner is to go see past jobs, talk to past customers, and talk to the subcontractors of the GC.

From the contractor's side, a disadvantage is that they have to be much more meticulous in their accounting and expense reporting. Another disadvantage is that when working with T&M contracts, there is less incentive to be thorough about all the costs in your initial report. When working with fixed-price or bid projects, you have to account for all the unknowns in the initial report or you won't get paid for those omissions.

Effective Management of Time and Material Contracts

Automation and Streamlining of Workflows

Given the potential complexities of T&M contracts, leveraging technology is crucial for effective management. Automation tools can streamline workflows and facilitate accurate tracking of time, materials, and costs.

Challenges in Overseeing T&M Contracts

Managing T&M contracts presents unique challenges, including the need for constant monitoring and a robust change management process. Clear communication with the client and creating proactive measures are essential to address these challenges.

Best Practices for Drafting and Implementing T&M Contracts

To navigate the intricacies of T&M contracts, adhering to industry best practices is crucial. Clearly defining the scope of work, detailing compensation terms, and incorporating a well-defined change order process are essential elements for successful contract implementation.

The Growing Role of Digital Contract Management in T&M

As the construction industry embraces digital transformation, the role of technology in contract management becomes increasingly important. Digital tools not only streamline administrative processes but also enhance transparency and accountability in T&M contracts.


In the dynamic landscape of construction contracts, time and material agreements stand out for their adaptability and flexibility. While offering numerous benefits, they also pose challenges that demand careful consideration for both the contractor and the customer. As you embark on your next construction project, weigh the specifics carefully and choose the contract type that aligns with your project's unique characteristics.

Time and material contracts are a powerful tool when wielded correctly. Embrace the flexibility they offer but do so with a keen understanding of the potential pitfalls. The future of construction lies in the intelligent application of contract types that suit the evolving nature of projects.

Whether you are drafting a new agreement or navigating an existing one, remember: understanding your contract is as crucial as the bricks and mortar you build with. As you explore labor, material, and equipment costs, consider using platforms like DOZR for your equipment rental needs for a simplified renting process and cost transparency.

Find Your Next Equipment Rental on DOZR
Mini Excavator image
1.5 ton - 9 ton
Compact Track Loader image
1,300 lbs - 3,400 lbs
Wheeled Skid Steer image
1,300 lbs - 3,450 lbs
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Kevin Forestell headshot
Kevin Forestell
Kevin Forestell is CEO of DOZR and one of the co-founders. Kevin first got started as an entrepreneur when he founded Forestell Landscaping right after graduating from University. His love and passion for the industry and desire to help solve an equipment problem that contractors faced every day is what brought the founding team to start DOZR. Kevin is proud of the level of efficiency brought to the industry through DOZR and hopes that DOZR will help change the standard way equipment is rented.
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